Cum se produce frica

Posted by: | Posted on: November 6, 2015
Cum-sa-depasesti-un-episod-de-frica-sau-atac-de-panica-300x200

,,Frica nu este un rezultat al gândirii. Orice încercare de a învinge frica prin ratiune este sortita esecului. Nu ratiunea este solutia, ci actiunea. De îndata de simti ca ti-e frica de ceva, observa ce ai de pierdut sau de câstigat daca te lasi condus de ea.
Daca te lasi dominat de frica, vei avea parte numai de dezamagiri si insatisfactii.

Este afectata astfel dragostea fata de tine însuti. Aceasta produce o indispozitie interioara” dintr-o perspectivă neurofiziologică „frica” este de fapt activarea unor circuite neuronale care rezultă în comportamente de apărare. Sunt trei regiuni principale implicate în neurofiziologia fricii: cortexul prefrontal, amigdala(structura subcorticala) şi hipotalamusul.

Apariţia răspunsului de frică este condiţionat de hiperactivarea amigdalei. Tot amigdala este responsabilă de intensitatea emoţiei resimţite, de exprimarea răspunsului de frică cât şi în suprimarea lui.Frica nu se mai manifestă în cazul în care apar leziuni ale amigdalei.
La nivelul cortexului este procesată semnficaţia stimulului. Aici se stabileşte dacă un stimul este periculos sau nu.

În tulburările de anxietate, implicit în fobii, este deteriorată comunicarea dintre structurile corticale (cortexul prefrontal) şi cele subcorticale (amigdala) şi atunci informaţiile corecte despre stimulul cu care ne confruntăm nu mai ajung la amigdală. Amigdala reacţionează astfel şi la „false pericole” sau apare reacţia de frică în prezenţa unor pericole minore, dar care sunt de fapt mult exgerate faţă de realitate.

O altă structură din creier implicată în condiţionarea fricii este hipocampusul. Hipocampusul mediază oarecum relaţia dintre contextul în care o persoană trăieşte sentimentul de frică şi frica ca şi răspuns al organismului nostru.

Amigdala este responsabilă de apariţia reacţiei emoţionale, frica în cazul de faţă, dar mai ales de intensitatea ei. Într-o situaţie viitoare chiar  pericolul nu mai apare, este suficient să apară un stimul asociat şi va apărea reacţia emoţională (frica), care a fost deja stocată la nivelul amigdalei. Aşadar în învăţarea unui răspuns emoţional avem două căi de învăţare : una mai lentă, mai profundă şi mai precisă (procesarea la nivel cortical), şi una mai rapidă, mai superficială şi mai puţin precisă (inputul senzorial ajunge direct la amigdala)
Íntr-o situaţie de învăţare o copie a informaţiei procesate la nivel cortical despre un stimul periculos, este stocată şi la nivelul amigdalei. Într-o situaţie viitoare în care acelaşi stimul sau unul similar lui apare din nou, dar el nu mai reprezintă în realitate un pericol, îşi găseşte corespondentul la nivelul amigdalei. Informaţia ajunge la talamus, dar de acolo nu mai este trimisă spre cortex deoarece ea a fost o dată procesată şi există o “copie” a acelei procesări la nivelul amigdalei.

Dintr-o “economie de resurse” organismul alege calea mai scurtă şi transmite informaţia direct la amigdală, unde potrivit “copiei” stocate deja acolo stimulul reprezintă un pericol şi este declanşată frica.
Organismul nu mai stă să proceseze semnificaţia acurată a unui stimul. La primul indiciu al unui pericol el decide să reacţioneze, chiar dacă ulterior se dovedeşte că pericolul nu exista de fapt sau era de fapt un pericol minor. În astfel de condiţii organismul alege să nu-şi asume nici un risc.
Răspunsul emoţional (frica) este declanşat în lipsa unor procesări la nivel cortical care ne-ar fi spus cu certitudine dacă stimulul ţintă reprezintă sau nu, un pericol. Uneori această reacţie automată a organismului la posibile pericole este adaptativă, este în avantajul nostru. Când se apropie de noi o maşină în viteză nu stăm să ne “gândim” dacă ne loveşte ori nu ne loveşte. Nu mai este timp pentru astfel de procesări la nivel cognitiv.

Este momentul în care organismul nostru alege “calea rapidă” de procesare a informaţiei, semnalizează pericolul, este declanşată frica şi corpul reacţionează. Dacă nu am avea aceste reacţii automate ale fricii de multe ori nu am reacţiona la timp în faţa pericolelor.





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